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Daniel Oppenheimer, College of Natural Sciences | March 22, 2011

In 2002, Elizabeth Gershoff published the first-ever meta-analysis of research (PDF) on the effects of corporal punishment on children.

Now an associate professor in the School of Human Ecology , Gershoff continues to delve into the impact of spanking (and other, more severe forms of physical punishment) on children. She also looks more broadly at the impacts of poverty, community violence and neighborhoods on child and youth development over time.

Is spanking still a common practice in the U.S.?

Most parents still spank, but they do it a lot less frequently than their parents did. Most parents who do spank do it once a month or less, maybe only a couple of times a year. So the prevalence of spanking is still very high (i.e., most parents do it) but the incidence is not (i.e., they don't do it very often).

Is it still the case that the vast majority of children in the U.S. are spanked by their parents at some point?

By the time American children reach middle and high school, 85 percent have been physically punished, either with a spanking or something harsher.

Can you sum up what research has to tell us about the effects of spanking on children?

There's been a lot of research on spanking, going back all the way to the early 1900s, and almost all of it has showed that spanking is associated with negative outcomes for children. It is associated with more aggressive and anti-social behaviors in children. The more frequently or severely children are spanked or hit, the more likely they are to have symptoms of depression or anxiety, both at the time they're punished and later. There is evidence to suggest that it erodes the connection between children and their parents, making children less likely to trust their parents. There's even evidence that it is linked with lower child IQ scores.

Several years ago, I published a research meta-analysis, which statistically summarized the outcomes associated with spanking across 89 studies. I found that the only positive outcome linked with corporal punishment was immediate compliance. The more children were spanked, the more they complied in that moment. Over the long term, however, and when their parents weren't there, spanking did not increase compliance. Even just two weeks later, it didn't seem to make a difference.

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Language object. The language object is global and it can't be set on each chart initiation. Instead, use Highcharts.setOptions to set it before any chart is initialized.

Since 6.0.6

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Since 3.0

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